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DSM-4 and DSM-5

The official diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association.



DR Xxxxx :
The DSM Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of the American Association of Psychiatrists:  Depressive Disorders: A listing


Bipolar Disorder,
Major Depression,
Depressive Personality,
Psychotic Depression,
Common names for depressive illness, covers terms such as Sad, Unhappy, Sadness, Badness, Miserable, Grief, Stress, Being Down, and Being Blue.
SAD, Seasonal Affective Disorder.

Soctor The Good Doctor at work.

The Paill Spectrum model suggests that clinical criteria are missing in our definition of depression. These are important as they suggest new possible treatments for depression. It also suggests that there are other “new” criteria that may be used in the making and confirming a diagnosis of depression or anxiety by a means in addition to simple clinical judgment.




Keywords and Concepts Summary
Depression covers diagnoses such as : Major Depression, manic depression, clinical depression, bipolar depression, SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder). Terms used in association with depression include sad, mad, bad, volatile mood, irritable, panic or anxiety or anxious depression, failing relationship, bad behaviour and road rage.

In the Paill Spectrum model, otherwise unappreciated but likely associated symptoms include: insomnia, impulsive actions ,many mental symptoms including psychotic type symptoms and abnormal intense thoughts, insomnia, Autism, Aspergers, dyslexia, schizophrenia, memory loss, ADD, chronic fatigue, learning difficulties, hair loss and obesity .

Low Energy Tired Depressed , low energy, unhappy, tired.

The role of a new model of illness ,called Paill Spectrum in the causation of many diseases, symptoms and conditions with no currently known cause is discussed.

The Paill Spectrum model predicts that there are a number of symptoms and signs of mental illness that are not realised to be associated with depression. 





Dr Xxxxx DR Xxxxx : Features of These Clinical Disorders :-[
The characteristic feature of any depression, is a chronically "depressed mood" state. 

Dr Xxxxx DR Xxxxx : Other common features associated with depressive illnesses include
sad mood, sadness,
down in the dumps,
irritability, or irritable mood. 

Dr Xxxxx DR Xxxxx : During periods of depression affected people may have
poor appetite or overeating,
insomnia or hypersomnia (reduced sleep or increased sleepiness),
low energy or fatigue or tiredness,
low or poor self esteem,
poor concentration,
difficulty making decisions and
feelings of hopelessness. 

Dr Xxxxx DR Xxxxx : Affected individuals may
feel or note self-criticism,
feel that they are uninteresting or incapable.